Rape and Mustard

Land Requirements

Land to be used for seed production of rape seed and mustard shall be free of volunteer plants. the selected field should be well-levelled and the soil suitable for cultivation of the crop.

Isolation Requirements

Indian minimum seed certification standards prescribe a ;minimum isolation distance of 100 metres and 50 metres for foundation seed class and 50 metres and 25 metres for certified seed class, for self incompatible and self compatible types respectively, from fields of other varieties of the sampe species, and fields of the same variety not conforming to varietal purity requirements of certification

Cultural Practices

Preparation of Land

Usually one ploughing three to four harrowings, followed by levelling, are sufficient to prepare land tosedired tilth. toria in particular requires a fairly moist seed bed for good germination.

Source of Seed

Obtain breeder's/foundation seeds from source approved by a seed certification agency.

Seed Rate

5 to 8 kg per hectare.

Method of Sowing

Seed crop should be sown in rows. the depth of seeding should not be more than 3 cm.

Fertilisation

Spacing

Row to row : 30 cm
Plant to Plant : 7.5 - 10cm

Irrigation

One presowing irrigation and one at flowering and pod formation is recommended forobtaining higher seed yields.

Interculture

One hand weeding when the plants are 15 to 20cm high is required.

Insect and Disease Control

Adopt recommended IPM methods

Roguing

All the off-type plants, easily distinguishable on the basis of plant characteristics, and other species plants must be removed before flowering to ensure pure seed production. Remaining off-types, if any, distinguishable on the basis of siliqua characteristics should be removed beforfe maturity. Satyanashi (Argemone mexicana) is the most objectionable weed in rape and mustard seed production. This weed must be removed altogether as often as required.

Harvesting and Threshing

It is important to harvest seed crop soon after plants start turning a light yellow. At this stage most of the siliqua are light yellow and the seed inside the siliqua light brown. After harvesting, the crop should be left in the field in small bundles for two to three days to dry in the field, or the bundles may be brought to threshing floor and completely dried there. After plants have been well dried, threshing can be done by bullocks, tractor or flailed with sticks. Before storage, dry seeds to reduce moisture content to eight per cent.

Seed Yield

With good management crop yields upto 15 to 20 qtl per hectare. 

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