The Romans were once again nervous about the growing power of Carthage, or at least that's what the Roman historians say. Hannibal took an army of men and elephants through the Alps and surprised the Romans in Northern Italy where he won many great battles; these include the Battle of the Trebia, the Battle of Lake Trasimene and the Battle of Cannae. We compare Rome to Carthage, then get into a summary account of the First, Second and Third Punic Wars, with brief discussions of their causes and consequences. Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. Rome gained dominance over the western Mediterranean, and Carthage lost almost all of its territory and received another, even larger fine. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. For more details, you can use google or the linksprovided in this unit. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. FIRST PUNIC WAR C Carthage already had people on the island, but Rome wanted to invade and take over. Here was a lush land just begging to be conquered. The causes of the Punic Wars boiled down to the Carthaginian Empire and the Roman Republic both wanting to expand their lands and build on the empires they had already started. The Carthage Empire surrendered after only a few years and handed up weapons and men as prisoners, the Romans were not content with this and wanted to raise Carthage to the ground. THE PUNIC WARS TOOK PLACE BETWEEN ROME AND CARTHAGE AND COVERED THE DATES 265 BC TO 146 BC 3. Fought between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century BC during the height of the Hellenistic Period, the Punic Wars saw the clash between the two superpowers of the … This lesson covers the three Punic Wars. They were highly civilized, literate and scientifically advanced, though they also may have engaged in human sacrifice. Yet, relative size was not the only difference between the Carthaginians and the Romans. Fifty years later, Carthage had finally managed to pay off that huge indemnity, meaning that Rome no longer had any interest in keeping them alive. The Romans, who until then had no naval power, had to build hundreds of ships with Greek help to fight the arthaginians. Biology Lesson Plans: Physiology, Mitosis, Metric System Video Lessons, Lesson Plan Design Courses and Classes Overview, Online Typing Class, Lesson and Course Overviews, Diary of an OCW Music Student, Week 4: Circular Pitch Systems and the Triad, Personality Disorder Crime Force: Study.com Academy Sneak Peek. A Summary of the Punic Wars. courses that prepare you to earn It stretched for 24 years before the Romans were finally victorious. The outcome of these wars determined the nation to dominate the Mediterranean for years to come, and the largest of the wars was the Second Punic War. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. In 264 BCE, the ambitious Roman Republic and the wealthy Carthaginian Empire collided on the island of Sicily in the first Punic War. The Punic Wars was a series of three wars between Rome and Carthage from around 264 B.C.-146 B.C. The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought between the forces of ancient Carthage and Rome between 264 BCE and 146 BCE. His account of the Punic Wars is fortunately among these better preserved parts. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. This was the Third Punic War, which was more of a siege and destruction of Carthage than anything else, and the outcome was never in doubt (unlike the Second Punic War, which could easily have resulted in Rome’s destruction). Just off the toe of Italy sits the island of Sicily. The Roman navy had improved significantly since the beginning of the last Punic War, and they were confident they could hold off any Carthaginian invasion. By 164 BC, Rome was a very different country then before the Punic Wars that saw immediate and long term effects. from 264 BC to 146 BC. When they began, Rome had nearly completed the conquest of Italy, while Carthage controlled NW Africa and the islands and the commerce of the W Mediterranean. Primarily an ongoing struggle between Rome and Carthage, with various fluid allies on either side, it would rumble on for over a century and end with They controlled the northern coast of Africa, the southern coast of Spain and most of the islands of the western Mediterranean, including half of Sicily. T The war lasted for 20 years, until Rome crushed Carthage. The Punic Wars were a series of wars between the Carthaginians and the Roman Republic that would catalyze the growth of the Roman territorial holdings as well as shape the ancient world for centuries to come. The outcome of the First Punic War was a resounding victory to Rome and the Carthage leadership signing a peace treaty advising as such. Meanwhile, Carthage's holdings in Spain were added to the Roman Empire. The war lasted for twenty years, and much of it was fought at sea. Instead, Hannibal laid waste across the countryside and tried to entice other Italian cities to rebel. This conflict was fought between the states of Carthage and Rome, two powerful states in this period. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Scipio invaded Africa, earning him the name Scipio Africanus and, more importantly, cutting off Hannibal's supply lines. Things were looking pretty good for Rome and pretty terrible for Carthage. We compare Rome to Carthage, then get into a summary account of the First, Second and Third Punic Wars, with brief discussions of their causes and consequences. just create an account. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 All rights reserved. The Carthaginian general, Hannibal, marched his army from Spain to Italy and laid waste to the Italian countryside for 16 years. There are two reasons Rome fared so poorly. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. The Romans won the third and final Punic War leaving the Carthaginian’s to sign a treaty giving Rome control and leaving Carthage with no military at all. The Third Punic War happened between 149 BC and 146 BC and it was the Romans on the offensive again. What tactic did Scipio use to defeat Hannibal? Over the space of just under 120 years there were three great wars between two powers jostling to control the seas and the lands of the Italian peninsula, Sicily, Northern Africa and the southern lands of Spain. 265 BC. This war is the shortest of the three and seems to have been the final nail in the coffin of the Carthage Empire. By contrast, the Romans were invaders forced to fight against dozens of independent peoples who all spoke different languages. It was a drawn-out, bloody affair, with the Carthaginians trying to keep the battle at sea, and the Romans trying to force the battle to land. Tradition holds that Phoenician settlers from the Mediterranean port of Tyre (in what is now Lebanon) founded the city-state of Carthage on the northern coast of Africa, just north of modern-day Tunis, around 814 B.C. By contrast, Rome was a nation of soldiers and farmers. By 265 B.C., Carthage was the wealthiest and most advanced city in the r… 4. While this war was a lot shorter than the First Punic War, it is most well known for the Carthage leader Hannibal who caused massive damage to the Romans.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'thefinertimes_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_4',110,'0','0'])); This war was fought over three fronts with Sicily never being a problem and the Romans defending resolutely, southern Spain where Carthage was able to hold on for quite a while before relinquishing control and retreating and the most well known being that of the battles in Italy. These wars began in 264 B.C. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. This presentation is a VERY brief summary of the three Punic Wars. It could be said that for this reason Hannibal was never able to complete his task even after 16 years in Italy. 265 BC. As Hannibal moved in the north he requested more soldiers, something Carthage never gave him. You can test out of the All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Roman culture was relatively primitive compared to the advanced Carthaginians. After this the Carthaginian Empire decided to use their Navy, which ruled the seas, as a means of winning the war. First Punic War: During the first Punic War, most of it was fought at sea. Rome was so fixated on rebuffing the Carthaginian navy that it never occurred to them that someone might be crazy enough to march that big Spanish army over the Alps and invade Italy by land. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. The Romans crossed the seas to North Africa and besieged the Phoenician city of Carthage (currently in Tunis). The main source for almost every aspect of the Punic Wars is the historian Polybius (c. 200 – c. 118 BC), a Greek sent to Rome in 167 BC as a hostage. | 8 © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. The second problem was that Rome had overextended itself. Their republic was run, in many respects, like an oversized military camp. In a single lifetime, little more than 60 years, Rome and Carthage had reversed positions. We compare Rome to Carthage, then get into a summary account of the First, Second and Third Punic Wars, with brief discussions of their causes and consequences. Just across the Mediterranean, on the shores of Africa, stood Carthage. Roman Dominance of Italy Nevertheless, through his military genius, Hannibal ravaged Italy for 16 years. Summary of The Punic Wars (264-241 B.C.) By the mid-third century BCE, the Romans reigned supreme in Italy. Summary of the Protective Eye of Horus Symbol, Ten Worst Terrorist Acts of the Past Decade. That general's name was Hannibal, and his military genius made him one of the most fearful figures in Roman history. Rome was now the dominant force in the western Mediterranean; it had added Carthage's European territory to the empire and extended its reach eastward. How was Hannibal's attack on Rome daring and different? The main cause of the Punic Wars was the clash of interests between the … The Romans were new to the development of capturing land and thus had not quite built their Empire yet which does happen later in history as we know. The second Punic War was fought over a perceived threat to Roman power. - Definition, Structure & History, CLEP Western Civilization I: Study Guide & Test Prep, History 301: Historiography & Historical Methods, HSC Ancient History: Exam Prep & Syllabus, Western Civilization 1648 to the Present: Help and Review, Western Civilization Since 1648: Homework Help Resource, CLEP Western Civilization II: Study Guide & Test Prep, Western Civilization From 1648 to Today: Certificate Program, CLEP Introductory Business Law: Study Guide & Test Prep, Political Science 102: American Government. 173 lessons The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC. As you are about to find out these three wars were probably the biggest wars to have ever happened before the birth of Christ so were greatly influential in changing the world at the time.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'thefinertimes_com-box-3','ezslot_2',108,'0','0'])); The causes of the Punic Wars boiled down to the Carthaginian Empire and the Roman Republic both wanting to expand their lands and build on the empires they had already started. Punic Wars, three distinct conflicts between Carthage and Rome. Carthage's many advantages meant that Carthage was the capital of a prosperous coastal empire that dominated the western Mediterranean. Scipio Africanus Conquers Spain 206 BC. Hannibal and Second Punic War General . I've already mentioned the first problem. To review: from 264 to 146 BCE, the Romans fought a series of three wars with the rival state of Carthage. Hannibal destroys the Roman army at Cannae in the most severe defeat ever suffered by Rome. The following year, Carthage surrendered. After a three-year siege, Rome burned Carthage to the ground. This presentation is aVERY brief summary of the three Punic Wars. 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). Create your account. Carthage was Phoenician city founded in 814 BC, and the term Punic relates to … THE PUNIC WARS TOOK PLACE BETWEEN ROME AND CARTHAGE AND COVERED THE DATES 265 BC TO 146 BC 3. In an act of pure tyranny, Rome demanded that the Carthaginians abandon their city and resettle 10 miles inland. So, what they did was they made their ships bulkier and stronger, they also added a bridge with a hook at the end to most of their ships. Shouldn't they have been better prepared? His works include a now-largely-lost manual on military tactics, but he is now known for The Histories, written sometime after 146 BC. As the history of the conflict was written by Roman authors, they labeled it 'The Punic Wars'. Carthage naturally refused, and Rome descended upon its old nemesis with all its might, besieging the city for two years before it fell at last in 146 BCE. Services. Select a subject to preview related courses: You may be wondering - how did Hannibal catch the mighty Romans with their pants down? Battle of Cannae 216 BC. R Rome did not have a good navy, but needed one to fight the Carthaginians. The name Punic comes from the word Phoenician (Phoinix in the Greek, Poenus from Punicus in Latin) as applied to the citizens of Carthage, who were of Phoenician ethnicity. Again Rome gains victory in the war and now controls much of the Western Mediterranean meaning the Carthage Empire losses a lot of control. The initial battles were on land with the Battle of Agrigentum being a massive learning curve for the Carthage army as it was routed by the Romans. After all, they were the ones who started the war. Once the Romans had gained control they simply destroyed the city totally before selling off the 50,000 or so survivors as slaves. Punic Wars. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons As a result of this slight delay, the Carthaginians had a small head start on the Romans, and the fact that theirs was a naval empire while Rome was a land empire gave them a still greater advantage. Helped me write a report for Latin class. Frustrated at sea by growing Roman dominance, the Carthaginians instead started colonizing the Iberian Peninsula. 's' : ''}}. Carthage had begun colonizing Spain, and Rome responded by declaring war. Did you know… We have over 220 college Personally, I think that Rome was just looking for a new target for their annual warfare since they'd just finished conquering Illyria across the Adriatic in 219 BCE. The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. In what ways were Rome and Carthage different? The Romans were new to the development of capturing land and thus had not quite built their Empire yet which does happen later in history as we know. The Punica is a Latin epic poem in seventeen books in dactylic hexameter written by Silius Italicus (c. 28 – c. 103 AD) comprising some twelve thousand lines (12,202, to be exact, if one includes a probably spurious passage in book 8). By contrast, Rome was the capital of a mere peninsula, albeit a densely populated one. This move was a great one as it meant Hannibal rushing back to defend his homeland before being demolished by the Romans at the Battle of Zama on October 19th 202 BC. While Hannibal was ravaging his way across Italy, Philip V of Macedon had taken advantage of the chaos to expand his own kingdom. For a trading nation, this was a death sentence. They are called the Punic Wars because the word “Punic” is derived from the Roman word for Phoenician, in reference to the Carthaginians’ ancestry. The Punic Wars had a number of important impacts to the Roman society and politics. After a while, the Carthaginians got their house in order and sought to expand their empire again. They'd squashed the Sabines, vanquished the Volsci, trounced the Etruscans, slaughtered the Samnites, unmanned the Umbrians, messed up the Messapians and even grappled with Greeks. It is the longest surviving Latin poem from antiquity. What's important to know now is that the Carthaginians had built their empire through trade and wealth as much as through force. The modern reader will be surprised to learn about its contents, because the conflict we know as the First Punic War is absent (Appian calls it the Sicilian War), and the historian has treated the Spanish and Italian parts of what is now known as the Second Punic War in his books on the Spanish Wars and … Yet, that is just what the Carthaginian general did. flashcard sets, {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | But, what the Romans lacked in money and refinement, they made up for in manpower, strict organization and ferocity. But, Carthage's greatest advantage was that it was a Phoenician colony trying to unify other Phoenician colonies, with whom they shared a common language and culture. Combining these attributes, the Romans had built their empire through conquest and bloodshed. When they ended, Carthage was ruined, and Rome was the greatest power W … The war ran between 264 BC and 241 BC. 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