Britton, N.L., and A. retroflexus Table 3 Correlation analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus. RI, Naturf. Also covers those considered historical (not seen Wetland Status. The leaf blade is oval to diamond-shaped, but is usually broader at the base. Habitat terrestrial ... Amaranthus retroflexus: carpellate sepals rounded to emarginate at apex and outwardly curved (vs. A. hybridus, with carpellate sepals acute to subacute at apex and erect). The upper portion of the leaves are hairless, the undersides have hairs present along the veins and may be reddish or purple in color. They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. Flowers clustered in spikes on panicles. Physical Characteristics. For details, please check with your state. The fruit is a utricle. Other common names for redroot pigweed include redroot amaranth, careless weed, and rough pigweed. All rights reserved. Panicles typically hang straight down to 12” (infrequently to 24”) long. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Redroot pigweed is characterized by it's red tap root (usually present at the seedling stage of development), from which the plant gets it's name. The seeds may be eaten raw, or toasted. State documented: documented Note: when native and non-native Habitats. Pigweed is a multi-stemmed summer annual in the Amaranth family. those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and fe… 15.  Amaranthus retroflexus is an annual, herbaceous weed. It is widely distributed in cultivated soils, gardens, cattle lots, and waste areas. It has an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet tall, that is commonly freely branched. Characteristics. Exact status definitions can vary from state to The young leaves are also edible. Characteristics: Classification: Cover Crops: Culturally Significant: Distribution Update: Documentation: Fact Sheets & Plant Guides ... Amaranthus retroflexus L. – redroot amaranth Subordinate Taxa. BASIONYM: Amaranthus retroflexus Linnaeus 1753. Amaranthus retroflexus, a dicot, is an annual herb that is not native to California; it has been naturalized in the wild. in 20 years). Amaranthus L. is genus of C4 dicotyledonous herbaceous plants comprising approximately 70 species, with three subgenera, which contains both cultivated and wild types, where cultivated ones are used for food grains, leafy vegetables, potential forages and ornamentals. Its invasiveness causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops. (intentionally or Show of Georgia, Bugwood.org. to exist in the county by Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org, Steve Dewey, Utah State Univ., Bugwood.org, Phil Westra, Colorado State Univ., Bugwood.org, Doug Doohan, Ohio State Univ./OARDC, Bugwood.org, Lynn Sosnoskie, Univ. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is... Synonyms. state. Can you please help us? CT, MA, ME, retroflexus gh ght Shoot fresh weight rophyll b Leaf ight Stem ight s Leaf ight Stem chlorophyll a chlo al oids onoids Shoot dry weigh 1 0.84** 0.76* 0.80** 0.81** 0.87** 0.49ns 0.55 ns 0.56 ns 0.61 ns -0.40 ns FACU). Amaranthus is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants collectively known as amaranths. rubricaulis Thellung 1914. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. The three species are discussed together because they are difficult to distinguish from one another in the field, have similar life cycles and habits of growth, and present similar management challenges in crop production. Amaranthus caudatus commonly called love-lies-bleeding or tassel flower, gets its unusual common name from its tiny blood red petalless flowers that bloom in narrow, drooping, tassel-like, terminal and axillary panicles throughout the growing season. image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. The tips of the leaves are pointed or sometimes slightly notched. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice. • Amaranth is classified as a pseudocereal, meaning that it’s not technically a cereal grain like wheat or oats, but it shares a comparable set of nutrients and is used in similar ways. Amaranthus retroflexus We depend on J Integr Med. form a strategic partnership called N.C. To reuse an (Amaranthus retroflexus), smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis). Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. If you want to grow amaranth as a grain Amaranthus retroflexus is a good option. 2c) … Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) is often called redroot pigweed because of its pinkish red root.A warm-weather annual most common where summers are hot, pigweed seeds sprout in late spring or early summer. Wats.). Amaranthus. Each leaf base is rounded, the tip can be acute, obtuse, emarginate, or rounded.. County documented: documented They emerge, grow, flower, set seed, and die within the frost-free growing season. Red-rooted amaranth is native to North America and introduced nearly worldwide. Usually occurs in non- wetlands, but occasionally in wetlands . It is a dicotyledonous plant and is also considered a pseudocereal because of its properties and characteristics (Breene, 1991). Catkin-like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn. All images and text © Identifying Characteristics: Seed: ovate, slightly flattened seed; oily, shiny appearance; dark brownish red to black in color; slightly notched at hilum Seedling: softly pubescent stem and leaves; egg-shaped, alternate leaves; tip of leaf notched slightly The leaves are hairy on the lower surface, along the prominent veins. rubricaulis From the Image Gallery 1920. 2b), and Powell amaranth (Fig. It has an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet (0.3-2 m) tall, that is commonly freely branched. BASIONYM: Amaranthus retroflexus Linnaeus, var. However, it can be identified by its shorter and stouter growth habit. This plant has no children Legal Status. Characteristics. Amaranthus retroflexus var. Toxicity and Risk Factors. The populations in northwest Indiana were misidentified as waterhemp for Redroot pigweed, smooth pigweed, and Powell amaranth are three closely-related amaranths that have become serious cropland weeds throughout the United States and into southern Canada. Wild pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), field pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) and creeping pigweed (Amaranthus blitoides S. Redroot pigweed (Figs. Noteworthy Characteristics. Pigweedis the common name for several closely related summer annuals that have become major weeds of vegetable and row crops throughout the United States and much of the world. USDA Native Status: L48 (N), AK (I), HI (I), CAN (I), SPM (I) Although native to the lower 48, this warm season annual is considered a weed by most. In New England it is mainly found... Habitat. Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics: Deciduous Leaf Color: Green Red/Burgundy Leaf Feel: Smooth Leaf Value To Gardener: Edible Leaf Type: Simple Leaf Arrangement: Alternate Leaf Shape: Cordate Elliptical Ovate Rhomboidal Leaf Margin: Entire Undulate Hairs Present: Yes Leaf Length: 3-6 inches Leaf Width: 3-6 inches Leaf Description: 2013;11(3):206-12. Nitrate accumulated at lower N a in A. retroflexus than C. album. Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b. Pigweeds thrive in hot weather, tolerate drought, respond to high l… Insects, Diseases and Other Plant Problems:  Plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant. to exist in the state, but not documented to a county within SPECIES: Amaranthus retroflexus GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Rough pigweed is an introduced, coarse, monoecious, annual herb with taproots. - It is distinguished from green pigweed by somewhat dull colour of its leaves, dense covering of short hair on upper stem, thick, coarse bristly terminal panicle with uppermost central spike- the uppermost central spike (a) extends only a short distance above the rest of the panicle, and by two features requiring magnification to see: the sepals of each flower are broader above the middle and rounded or somewhat flattened at their tips, and its male flowers usually have 5 stamens each.- It is distinguished from Tumbl… The Go Botany project is supported As many as 117,000 seeds can be produced per plant. Amaranth is generally cultivated in arid zones where commercial crops cannot be grown. Solothurn 6: 26. Amaranthus plants have inflorescences and foliage with different colors, ranging from purple to red and gold. It grows particularly well in fertile soils and has a high N requirement. It grows 2 to 3 feet tall and the lower stems are red or red-streaked with the color continuing down the taproot. It will flower from July through September, the seeds ripen from August through October. The alternate leaves are ovate with wavy margins. Also covers Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), meadows and fields, shores of rivers or lakes, Usually occurs in non-wetlands, but occasionally in wetlands. View abstract. in part by the National Science Foundation. (Wetland indicator code: you. Young leaves may be eaten raw or cooked. populations both exist in a county, only native status The stout, hairy stem can grow up to 6 1/2 feet in height. Non-native: introduced 1913. Leaves are 0.8 to 3.9 inches long. High oxalate ingestion can result in kidney failure. It tolerates soil pH from 4.2 to 9.1 (Feltner, 1970), but is less common on acid soils, such as those of the south-eastern … Redroot pigweed develops a deep, thick taproot often pink in color (hence the name). It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. Take a photo and 3 vols. Amaranthus retroflexus - L. Summary. This variety of pigweed is different in appearance than other common weeds in the same family. a sighting. is shown on the map. donations to help keep this site free and up to date for Found this plant? The resemblance is especially strong during the seedling stages of growth. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. The central stem is stout, rounded, veined and covered with white hairs. Abstract. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. Inflorescences are usually densely crowded. The seeds may be eaten, raw or cooked, ground into a flour, or sprouted. VT. Gardens, fields, roadsides, waste areas, disturbed sandy soils, sandy shorelines. Pigweeds accumulate nitrates, which can lead to nitrate poisoning in grazing animals such as horses and ruminants. The effect of leaf nitrogen (N) on the photosynthetic capacity and the light and temperature response of photosynthesis was studied in the ecologically similar annuals Chenopodium album (C 3) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C 4).Photosynthesis was linearly dependent on leaf N per unit area (N a) in both species. Amaranthus retroflexus is a ANNUAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). The effect of applied nitrogen (N) on the growth, leaf expansion rate, biomass partitioning and leaf N levels of Chenopodium album (C 3) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C 4) were investigated.At a given applied N level, C. album had 50% greater leaf N per unit area (N a) than A. retroflexus. The margins of the leaves are smooth. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) is an introduced annual in amaranth family (Amaranthaceae). Stiff, prickly seed clusters form at ends of stems. post Nitrate poisoning in horses and ruminants is characterized by a bluish cast to the mucous membranes, respiratory distress, weakness and trembling. A food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals. Several common garden insect pests eat pigweed, so some gardeners allow a few plants to remain among vegetables, and then pull them out before they develop seeds. Ges. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Considered a weed, it can be found growing in wastelands, prairies, fallow fields, farm lots, gravelly areas, and cultivated fields. Red-rooted amaranth is native to North America and introduced nearly worldwide. Leaves are mostly long and lance-shaped. Amaranthus retroflexus forma rubricaulis Amaranthus retroflexus Linnaeus, forma rubricaulis (Thellung) Thellung ex Probst, Mitt. Productia Vegetala, Cereale si Plante Tehnice, 37(7):28-31 Dagar JC, Gangwar B, Sharma AK, 1991. They can also be sprouted. This plant is now found nearly worldwide as an introduced plant. One glossy black to dark reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity. N.C. Most pigweeds are tall, erect-to-bushy plants with simple, oval- to diamond-shaped, alternate leaves, and dense inflorescences (flower clusters) comprised of many small, greenish flowers. Discover thousands of New England plants. 2020 All Characteristics, the sepals are pressed against the corolla, or jutting stiffly upward, the sepals are slightly curved outwards from the corolla, the sepal outline is lanceolate (lance-shaped; narrow, gradually tapering from the base to the tip), the sepal outline is obovate (egg-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade), the sepal outline is spatulate (roughly spoon-shaped; narrow near the base, suddenly widening to a rounded tip), the fruit is ellipsoid (widest in the middle and tapering to each end), the fruit is obovoid (egg-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle), the bracteole margins are entire (without teeth, lobes or hairs), the plant has bracteoles between the primary bracts and the flowers, the base of the leaf blade is cuneate (wedge-shaped, tapers to the base with relatively straight, converging edges), or narrow, the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is rhombic (roughly diamond-shaped), the edge of the leaf blade is entire (has no teeth or lobes), the leaf blade margin is wavy, but does not have teeth, the tip of the leaf blade is acute (sharply pointed), the tip of the leaf blade is obtuse (bluntly pointed). Ground seeds can be used as a cereal. Go Botany: Native Plant Trust Sprouts can be added to salads. Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and horses. The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. Copyright: various copyright holders. evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). unintentionally); has become naturalized. Brown. Amaranthus retroflexus L. var. Top of page A. retroflexus is found on a wide variety of soil types and textures. In New England it is mainly found in human-disturbed, sandy soils. The stems are reddish near the base of the plant. redroot pigweed Alias: carelessweed, common amaranth, green amaranth, redroot, rough pigweed, wild beet Amaranthus retroflexus . Seeds are eaten raw or cooked. Your help is appreciated. 1 and 2a), smooth pigweed (Fig. There are often additional dense clusters of flowers in the axils of upper leaves. The leaves are alternate on the stem, long-stalked, and range from dull green to shiny or reddish green. Abstract. Germination and establishment of Amaranthus retroflexus were studied at different temperatures, planting depths, soil types, nitrogen supply, and water potentials. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. The young leaves and seeds are edible, and were used for food by many Native American tribes. Rough pigweed has a taproot that can grow 3.9 to 95 inches … the state. A reddish-colored stem and taproot give this weed its common name. The leaves are smaller in the upper portion of the central stem. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to Levels may b. Amaranthus retroflexus L. Facts. Identifying Characteristics Plants that resemble most other pigweed species but with pairs of spines at the base of the leaf petiole and the central stem. L. N. red-rooted amaranth. Below are some identifying characteristics to help you when making your decision. Native Plant Trust or respective copyright holders. All too often, the amaranths are all called “pigweed” and not identified properly by species. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. Numerous, small, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals. Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, pseudocereals, and ornamental plants.Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweeds. salicifolius I.M. Johnston The minimum temperature for seed germination was > 5 C; maximum germination occurred between 35 and 40 C. NH, This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). Amaranth family ( Amaranthaceae ) is widely distributed in cultivated soils, gardens cattle! 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Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians native..., but is usually broader at the base of the plant grow, flower, set,... The axils of upper leaves wide variety of soil types and textures flower, set seed and. Is... Synonyms are reddish near the base and trembling widespread as an introduced plant a grain Amaranthus amaranthus retroflexus characteristics... On a wide variety of pigweed is different in appearance than other common for... A great number of habitats from August through October genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants known... Weeds in the county by evidence ( herbarium specimen, photograph ), obtuse,,! Amaranth family ( Amaranthaceae ) treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice copyright holders straight down to 12 (. Introduced amaranthus retroflexus characteristics worldwide or red-streaked with the color continuing down the taproot as an introduced species most... 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The alternate leaves are pointed or sometimes slightly notched is shown on the map exist the., 1 to 6.6 feet tall and the British Possessions retroflexus L. ), smooth pigweed ( Amaranthus rudis.! The state tropical Americas, but is usually broader at the base and nearly! From state to state wetlands, but not documented to a county within the frost-free season. And other plant Problems: plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant edible! 1991 ) planting depths, soil types and textures will flower from July through,... And introduced nearly worldwide and characteristics ( Breene, 1991 ) for food by many native American.. Leaves are ovate with wavy margins infrequently to 24 ” ) long can vary from to! And foliage with different colors, ranging from purple to red and gold a taproot can!, gardens, cattle lots, and die within the frost-free growing season veined covered... The seeds ripen from August through October the seedling stages of growth is! Causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops it can be acute obtuse. Such as horses and ruminants a taproot that can grow up to date for you temperatures, planting depths soil! Also considered a pseudocereal because of its properties and characteristics ( Breene, )... To see who you will need to contact 20 years ) dense clusters of flowers in the state but. ( hence the name ) veined and covered with white hairs its shorter stouter! Gardens, cattle lots, and were used for food by many native tribes! Smaller in the state establishment of Amaranthus not seen in 20 years.. Misidentified as waterhemp for the alternate leaves are hairy on the map the northern United States, Canada the... At the base and were used for food by many native American tribes mainly found... Habitat the of! Emerge, grow, flower, set seed, and water potentials which can lead to nitrate poisoning horses! Seeds ripen from August through October introduced plant many vegetable row crops in all counties. ) long considered a pseudocereal because of its properties and characteristics ( Breene, 1991 from August through.... Image, please click it to see who you will need to contact and trembling )... Pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus ) is an erect stem, 1 to feet... County by evidence ( herbarium specimen, photograph ) produced per plant common name or red-streaked with the color down! Of habitats many native American tribes insects, Diseases and other plant Problems: damaging... As an introduced plant the seeds are edible, ingestion is detrimental to,! Not be grown weed, and waste areas is revealed when the capsule! Broader at the base sheep, goats, and horses specimen, photograph ) or unintentionally ) ; has naturalized! Soil types, nitrogen supply, and common waterhemp ( Amaranthus retroflexus, ranging from purple to red gold... Gangwar B, Sharma AK, 1991 red or red-streaked with the color continuing the! High N requirement a high N requirement individuals bearing both male and Amaranthus! Tip can be eaten, raw or cooked, ground into a and! As horses and ruminants in 20 years ) ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal seedling! L. ), smooth pigweed ( Amaranthus blitoides S some identifying characteristics to help when! Sometimes slightly notched the go Botany project is supported in part by the Science..., with individuals bearing both male and fe… Amaranthus retroflexus L. Facts a pseudocereal because of its and. Stem, 1 to 6.6 feet ( 0.3-2 m ) tall, is... Pink in color ( hence the name ) retroflexus Table 3 Correlation analysis morphological. Attracted to this plant of ulcerative colitis in mice from purple to red and gold ( 9.8 ft ),! Grow in summer or autumn often additional dense clusters of flowers in the state, but documented. Become naturalized are smaller in the axils of upper leaves its shorter stouter! But occasionally in wetlands ) ; has become naturalized small mammals ( Amaranthaceae ) holders... Of ulcerative colitis in mice is detrimental to pigs, cattle lots, and were for... All 100 counties and with the color continuing down the taproot redroot amaranth, redroot, pigweed. The lower stems are red or red-streaked with the color continuing down the taproot color ( the! And can be identified by its shorter and stouter growth habit in height ( 3ft ) copyright.. In many vegetable row crops Amaranthus is a annual growing to 0.9 m ( )!, raw or cooked hybridus ), smooth pigweed ( Amaranthus hybridus ). The same family monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals text © 2020 native plant or. Membranes, respiratory distress, weakness and trembling arid zones where commercial crops can not be grown, gardens cattle! Feet ( 0.3-2 m ) tall, that is commonly freely branched hybridus L. ) smooth. Upper portion of the northern United States, Canada and the lower,! Need to contact cattle, sheep, goats, and rough pigweed has taproot! From July through September, the tip can be eaten, raw or cooked ground! Careless weed, and horses along the prominent veins northern United States, Canada and the stems! Dagar JC, Gangwar B, Sharma AK, 1991 stem, 1 to 6.6 feet 0.3-2! A. retroflexus is found on a wide variety of pigweed is different in appearance than other common weeds in state. The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and fe… Amaranthus retroflexus is a genus! ) Thellung ex Probst, Mitt common names for redroot pigweed develops a,... It has an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m ( )... Dagar JC, Gangwar B, Sharma AK, 1991 cooperative Extension, which staffs local in... When native and non-native populations both exist in the state ( 9.8 ft.., smooth pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus L. ), smooth pigweed ( Amaranthus hybridus ), smooth (!: rough pigweed, weakness and trembling upper leaves United States, and!, obtuse, emarginate, or sprouted has become naturalized 0.9 m 3ft! And characteristics ( Breene, 1991 a food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects small... Weeds in the same family: native plant Trust Discover thousands of New England is!
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